Presentation – English Colonies / Colonial Society

Aufgabe:


Ein Vortrag über die Englischen Kolonien in Amerika halten.

Subdivision:

– Foundation of the first colonies/ The beginning of English colonialism
– Text – Jamestown
– Mayflower Compact
– Classification of the colonies( economy, society,…)
– Administration of the colonies
– Frensh and Indian War
– Desire for independence

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Foundation of the first colonies

– 1496/97 John Cabot discovers, seizes parts of Newfoundland, Canada
–>first seasonal colony (fishing) – 1579 Francis Drake àseizes “Nova Albion” (north american coast; california)
– 1583 Humphrey Gilbert founds first official Engl. colony : Saint John’s (Newfoundland)
– 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh founds Roanoke (Virginia) both didn’t exist a long period of time (starvation, maritime disasters, storms)
– 17. century –> trials of permanent colonies

– settlers, out of work in England
– adventurers (gold, sea route to India)
– traders, that wanted to become rich
– christianize native inhabitans

– Around 1700: many widespread Engl. Settlements along the Eastcoast

Classification of the colonies

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Commonalities:


– Engl. Motherland
– feeling proud and special, because they’re developing the land
– partial congregationalism as a pol. feature

Administration of the colonies

Royal governor
– instrument of the Motherland
– set in by Engl king

representation of the people
– instrument of self-management, chosen by land
– owning men: right to a say for taxes and legislation

–> partial congregationalism

– self-management of the comunity: especially puritanically conception
– basis for latter conflicts with Engl. Motherland

French and Indian War

– France: Canada and Louisiana
– Between 1689 and1815: several war between F and E
– North America got involved
– 1756 Frensh and Indian War (7 years)
– William Pitt (Primeminister) invested soldiers and money and won an empire
– Louisburg 1758; Quebec 1759; 1760 Montreal
– Peace of Parisà B receives Canada and all territories in the east of the Mississippi

Desire for independence

– War lead to conflict with colonies
– E in debt
– Avoid conflicts with indiansàrestriction to settle down in the west of the Appalachian Mountains
– E began to punish smugglers
– Taxes on tea, coffee textils and other imports
– Quartering Act
– Stamp Act [class]
=Colonies should pay for the war fought for them.
Americans were afraid, that the taxes etc will handicap the trade and economy and thougt will destroy their civil rights

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– Colonies wanted to control the system of taxation, which supports their government
– No taxation without representation
– 1765 Stamp Act Congress (repr. From 9 col.)
– brit. Parliament had to take the stamp act back, but taxed Tea and other goods
– sent costums officers to Boston
– Am. refused to obey->Britain sent troops

– Tensions decreased when all taxation beside the tax on tea were abolished
– Boston Tea party [class]
– British parliament –> Intolerable Acts
– Independence of Massachusetts government was limited, Port closed
– More soldiers
– 1774 Continental Congress in Phil.
– Boycott brit. Trade, disobey Intolerable acts
– Colonists began to collect weapons and munition and organize an army

English Colonies / Colonial Society
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