English Colonies / Colonial Society



  • Titel: English Colonies / Colonial Society
  • Autor: anonym
  • Beschreibung: Ein Vortrag über die Englischen Kolonien in Amerika. A presentation about the English colonies and the colonial society.
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Presentation - English Colonies / Colonial Society

Aufgabe:


Ein Vortrag über die Englischen Kolonien in Amerika halten.

Subdivision:



- Foundation of the first colonies/ The beginning of English colonialism
- Text - Jamestown
- Mayflower Compact
- Classification of the colonies( economy, society,…)
- Administration of the colonies
- Frensh and Indian War
- Desire for independence


Foundation of the first colonies



- 1496/97 John Cabot discovers, seizes parts of Newfoundland, Canada
-->first seasonal colony (fishing) - 1579 Francis Drake àseizes "Nova Albion" (north american coast; california)
- 1583 Humphrey Gilbert founds first official Engl. colony : Saint John's (Newfoundland)
- 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh founds Roanoke (Virginia) both didn't exist a long period of time (starvation, maritime disasters, storms)
- 17. century --> trials of permanent colonies

- settlers, out of work in England
- adventurers (gold, sea route to India)
- traders, that wanted to become rich
- christianize native inhabitans

- Around 1700: many widespread Engl. Settlements along the Eastcoast

Classification of the colonies



The Colonies in New England (Connecticut, Masachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maine) The Middle Colonies (Maryland, Delaware, New York, Pennsylvenia, New Jersey) The Southern "Plantation-colonies" (Virginia, Carolina and Georgia)
history - First settlers:
Puritans/Pilgrims (Mayflower 1620)
- found Plymouth near Cape Cod --> Foundation of Massachusetts Bay Company
- Province of Maine 1622 by the Plymouth Council for New England
- Massachusetts 1630 by John Winthropà1630 Boston
- Rhode Island 1636 by Roger Williams
- Connecticut 1636 by Thomas Hooker
- New Hampshire 1638 by John Wheelwright
- Dutchmen founded first bases (rivers in Hudson and DelawareàNew Netherlands)
- Foundation of new Amsterdam
- (bought from indians)
- Settlements of scandinavians
- All taken over by E (1664-1667)
- New York 1626 by Peter Minuit
- Maryland 1633 by Lord Baltimore
- Delaware 1638 by Peter Minuit
- New Jersey 1664 by English colonists
- Pennsylvania 1682 by William Penn
- 1607 Jamestown first permanent colony
- During 17. century: England wants to intensify trade with America
- Colonies on caribbean Islands: Dominique, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Barbados
- Virginia 1607 by John Smith and others, at Jamestown
- North Carolina1653 by Virginia colonists
- South Carolina 1663 by English colonists
- Georgia 1732 by James Oglethorpe
motivation - keep their family together
- practice their own religion.
- practice their own religion (Pennsylvania mainly)
- to make money
- no families --> perfect workers
- to make money
- economical reasons
economy - farming and fishing communities
- grew much of their own food
- Crops like corn and wheat
- Boston - major New England port.
- butter and beef
- Coats(beginning
- part agriculture, part industrial
- grains grew on farms in Pennsylvania and New York
- Factories in Maryland produced iron, and factories in Pennsylvania produced paper and textiles.
- Trade with England was plentiful
- entirely agricultural
- plantation of tobacco, rice, sugar cane, cotton, indigo
- Slavery 1619
- More important for England
society - Large middle class
- Many immigrants(especially in the Middle ColoniesàGermans Dutchmen, scandinavians)
- pure European settlements
like New England - Kind of aristocracy (white farmers) ruling
- 1700 Slaves majority
- most people (50% of America)
religion - Massachusetts: Puritansàstrict religious life
- Roger Wiliams: Rhode Islandà religious tolerance, seperation gov.<-->rel.
- Maryland(Catholics), Pennsylvenia(Quaker) : religious tolerance
like New England - Mostly Anglican


Commonalities:


- Engl. Motherland
- feeling proud and special, because they're developing the land
- partial congregationalism as a pol. feature

Administration of the colonies

Royal governor
- instrument of the Motherland
- set in by Engl king

representation of the people
- instrument of self-management, chosen by land
- owning men: right to a say for taxes and legislation

--> partial congregationalism

- self-management of the comunity: especially puritanically conception
- basis for latter conflicts with Engl. Motherland

French and Indian War



- France: Canada and Louisiana
- Between 1689 and1815: several war between F and E
- North America got involved
- 1756 Frensh and Indian War (7 years)
- William Pitt (Primeminister) invested soldiers and money and won an empire
- Louisburg 1758; Quebec 1759; 1760 Montreal
- Peace of Parisà B receives Canada and all territories in the east of the Mississippi

Desire for independence



- War lead to conflict with colonies
- E in debt
- Avoid conflicts with indiansàrestriction to settle down in the west of the Appalachian Mountains
- E began to punish smugglers
- Taxes on tea, coffee textils and other imports
- Quartering Act
- Stamp Act [class]
=Colonies should pay for the war fought for them.
Americans were afraid, that the taxes etc will handicap the trade and economy and thougt will destroy their civil rights


- Colonies wanted to control the system of taxation, which supports their government
- No taxation without representation
- 1765 Stamp Act Congress (repr. From 9 col.)
- brit. Parliament had to take the stamp act back, but taxed Tea and other goods
- sent costums officers to Boston
- Am. refused to obey->Britain sent troops

- Tensions decreased when all taxation beside the tax on tea were abolished
- Boston Tea party [class]
- British parliament --> Intolerable Acts
- Independence of Massachusetts government was limited, Port closed
- More soldiers
- 1774 Continental Congress in Phil.
- Boycott brit. Trade, disobey Intolerable acts
- Colonists began to collect weapons and munition and organize an army

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